into forcing them to discard their culture, language, and even names, which was often accomplished by working them nearly to death. If this failed to do the trick, there was also the bullwhip used to flog those who refused to submit. Pregnant women were not exempt from this form of torture: a hole would be dug to accommodate her belly, then she would lie prone on the ground for her beating. Masters sometimes made pretty slave girls and women into their personal prostitutes. About thirty percent of slaves died in the first three years from this process, an even greater number than the usual fifteen to twenty percent who died during the voyage. The majority of broken slaves stayed that way.